IP Address Explaination : Ip Tracing , Scanning ports , And concept

This one is special article written for all of you to understand and use the IP . ( Internet Portal address
Before you can change your IP you need some information. This information includes your IP range, subnet mask, default gateway, dhcp server, and dns servers.

1. Getting your IP range – Getting information about your IP range is not difficult, I recommend using Neo Trace on your own IP. But for my test just look at your IP address, say it’s 24.193.110.13 you can definitely use the IP’s found between 24.193.110.1 < [new IP] < 24.193.110.255, don't use x.x.x.1 or x.x.x.255. To find your IP simply open a dos/command prompt window and type ipconfig at the prompt, look for "IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : x.x.x.x". 2. Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, DHCP Server - These are very easy to find, just open a dos/command prompt window and type 'ipconfig /all' without the ' '. You should see something like this: Windows IP Configuration: Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : My Computer Name Here Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . . . : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: Unknown IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . . : No WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . . . .: xxxx.xx.x Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : NETGEAR FA310TX Fast Ethernet Adapter (NGRPCI) Physical Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . . . . . . : Yes IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 24.xxx.xxx.xx Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 255.255.240.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 24.xxx.xxx.x DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 24.xx.xxx.xx DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : 24.xx.xxx.xxx 24.xx.xxx.xx 24.xx.xxx.xxx Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:Monday, January 20, 2003 4:44:08 PM Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:Tuesday, January 21, 2003 3:43:16 AM This is all the information you will need for now, I suggest you either keep your dos/command prompt window open or copy & paste the information somewhere, to copy right click the window and select text and click once. III. Changing your IP Address To change your IP address first pick any IP you like out of your IP range and remember it or write it down. It is usualy a good idea to make sure the IP is dead (except for what we are going to do later on) so just ping it via "ping x.x.x.x" and if it times out then you can use it. Now go to My Computer, then Control Panel. In Control Panel select Network Connections and pick your active connection, probably Local Area Connection or your ISP name. Open that connection by double clicking on the icon in Network Connections, then select Properties under the General Tab. In the new window that pops up select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click properties, it's under the general tab. In this new window select the General tab and choose "Use the following IP address" and for the IP address enter the IP you would like to use (the one you picked from your subnet earlier) and for the Subnet Mask enter the subnet mask you got when your ran ipconfig /all, same goes for the Default Gateway. Now select "Use the following DNS server addresses" and enter the information you got earlier. Now just click OK. Test that it worked, try to refresh a website and if it works you know everything is okay and you are connected. To make sure the change worked type ipconfig again and the IP address should have changed to your new one. IV. DDoS & DoS Protection If your firewall shows that you are being DDoSed, this is usually when you are constantly getting attempted UDP connections several times a second from either the same IP address or multiple IP addresses (DDoS), you can protect your self by changing your IP address via the method I described above. V. Web servers & Other Services If you know someone on your IP range is running a web server and he or she has pissed you off or you just like messing around you can "steal" their IP address so any DNS going to that IP will show your site instead because you would be running a web server yourself. To "steal" an IP is to basically use the changing IP address method above and picking an IP that someone that is running a web server has in use. Often you will be able to keep that IP at least for some time, other times you wont be able to use it so just keep trying until it works. You your self will need to have a web server on the same port with your message. You can do this with other services too. You can also DoS or DDoS the IP address you are trying to steal to kick him off the net, but I don't recommend as its pretty illegal, an your ISP will get pissed 😉

Set Up Your Own Domain Name Server

This is only a quick tutorial, there are literally hundreds of little tricks you can do with a DNS, but this will get your basics up and running. I’m assuming you want to setup a windows DNS server, but the principals will work for most servers.

You will need..

1) A domain name over which you have full control
2) DNS server software(Windows server always comes with one of these)
3) At least one fixed IP address, allthough two is highly desirable
4) An idea of what services you want on your server

The first thing you need to do is create your new domain entry. In windows this is called a “Zone” and you will have one for every domain name you have. Add your main domain in the forward lookup zone as a Primary zone, which will be in the format “Domainname.com”, or .co.uk, or whatever, you shouldn’t need any more details for this bit. Do *not* allow dynamic updates unless this is a local network DNS. Once it is created you will have 2 entry’s under your new domain, “SOA”(Or Start of Authority) and “NS”(Or Name server). If you want a 100% compliant DNS then you should now follow the same process but adding a domain as a reverse lookup zone. Any changes you make to the forward lookup should have the “Update Reverse Lookup” option ticked if its available, if not you must update the reverse zone manually(This is very important).

Now edit the “NS” entry in your forward zone to “NS0.DomainName.Com”, and set it to the relevant IP address. Add another (NS) record and set it to “NS1.DomainName.Com”. If using 2 IP address, try to make NS0 the first IP. Now you need to configure the SOA entry in the forward lookup zone. The serial number should be changed to a date followed by a number in this format “YYYYMMDDnn”, this is not required, but is advised by RIPE. The primary server will be the “NS0.domainname.com” entry you just made and the responsible person should be left for now. The refresh interval should be set somewhere between 1200 to 43200 seconds, the retry should be between 120-7200 seconds and the expires after should be around 2-4 weeks(I’ll let you work out the seconds for that). The minimum TTL is quite important, and depending on what you are going to do with the domain, you might need to tweak this a bit. Typically a value between 1-3 hours should be used. Now go to your “Name server” settings in your SOA record(In windows this is a tab in the same window) remove the defaults, and add your two Name servers that you just setup. We will come back to the SOA record later, but for now we need to do some more stuff.

If you want a website, then your going to want the WWW. setting up. We will set it up as an “A” record, which means it is a separate top level record and will be populated separately from other entries. So add an “A” to your forward lookup zone and put the entry as “WWW”, and set the IP address to wherever you want the website to be. This will be where the domain always goes, and it could be anywhere. Just make sure there is a web server waiting there for it. If you want FTP, then setup the same thing but with “FTP” in the entry. You will now also have to setup “A” records for the NS0 and NS1 name servers that you added previously, just make them the same as WWW and FTP, but make sure the IP addresses match the ones used for setting up the “NS” records. Also add a blank “A” record, this will make sure that “domainname.com” works as well as “www.domainname.com”.

Now you should decide whether or not you want to have mail on this domain. It is Hegel advisable that you set one up, even if it just to catch domain mail about abuse or potential problems that might occur. You can find plenty of high quality free mail servers out there, but I would recommend “Mail Enable”, its free and provides everything you would want, but if you want webmail you do have to pay something extra for it. We will now configure the MX records. Add an “A” name for your mail server, you can add 2 if you want, but for simplicity I would advise staying with 1. We will call ours “Mail.domainname.com”, and point it to one of our IP addresses. Now add an “MX” record in the Forward Lookup zone, giving it the full “A” record you just entered “Mail.domainname.com”, and do not setup a host or child domain, just leave it blank.

This next step isn’t needed, but is again highly recommended.

Now to finish the SOA you need to add two more records. A “RP” entry, which is a Responsible Person, and they will be the contact point for domain complaints and a “MB” entry, which is a mailbox entry. The “MB” should just be pointed to the mail server domain name “Mail.domainname.com”, and the “RP” should have the host or domain set to the name of your mail box. So for this server it will be “Tony.Domainname.com”, and the mailbox will be set to the “MB” record you just made. Don’t worry about the RP address having no “@” in it, this is the expected format for an “RP” entry. You will now have to go back into the SOA and change the responsible person to the new “RP” record you just made.

And thats it, your done! You can add as many “A” records as you like to point to other web servers, or a multitude of FTP sites. And you can add “CNAME” records to basically point to another name, usually an “A” record, like an alias.

Now before you switch your domain on, you need to check that the server is performing properly. So go to www.dnsreport.com, and run the report on your domain “domainname.com”, and it will give you a very detailed report of any problems, and even a short description of how to fix the problems. If all is OK, then you are ready to go live. If your domain name is new, or not currently hosted anywhere then the first thing you should do is re-point the domain at your new server. You will typically do this with the provider who owns the domain, and it will be different with all hosts. But the basic settings are the same. You will be asked for at least 2 name servers and ip addresses to go with them. Just put in “NS0.domainname.com” and “NS1.domainname.com” and put in the correct IP addresses. Make sure you do not mess this up, as changes to your main NS servers could potentially take several days to straighten themselves out. Update these settings, and then sit back and wait. You can do a whois on the main DNS server of your domain provider to check if the settings have worked, but again this doesn’t always work. For the big 3 domains(.com .net .org) you can do a whois on the network associates site to see the changes instantly. You can also track the progress of the domain changes by doing an NSLookup in dos, like this…

c:\nslookup ns0.domainname.com NS0.yourprovidersdns.com

That will give you the entries your domain provider has

c:\nslookup www.domainname.com ns0.domainname.com

And this will tell you if the changes for your domain have gone through to your ISPs DNS yet. It should give you back the IP address of your new DNS server.

You should always make sure your server is backed up, and that you refresh or update the DNS when you are making changes.